New publication from Nordicom

The Assault on Journalism

Building Knowledge to Protect Freedom of Expression

Ulla Carlsson & Reeta Pöyhtäri (eds.)

This publication is the result of collaboration between the UNESCO Chair at the University of Gothenburg, UNESCO, IAMCR and a range of other partners.

The book was launched during a special academic session held alongside UNESCO’s observance of World Press Freedom Day, in Jakarta, May 13-14.

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Ulla Carlsson , Reeta Pöyhtäri

Words of Introduction


Simon Cottle

Journalist Killings and the Responsibility to Report

Guy Berger

Why the World Became Concerned with Journalistic Safety, and Why the Issue Will Continue to Attract Attention

Silvia Chocarro Marcesse

The United Nations’ Role in Promoting the Safety of Journalists from 1945 to 2016

Berit von der Lippe , Rune Ottosen

Gendering War and Peace Journalism. New challenges for media research

Thomas Hanitzsch

Collaboration Is the Future. Doing research in the network era


  1. Reflection, Reconsideration, Collaboration

Elisabeth Eide

A Country without Mercy. Afghan journalists caught in crossfires

Pradip Ninan Thomas

The Cost of Truth Telling in India. Reporting in the context of intolerance

Ramon R. Tuazon , Paz H. Diaz , Therese Patricia C. San Diego

Philippine and Global Research on News Media Safety. Crossing disciplines, bridging gaps

Reeta Pöyhtäri

UNESCO’s Research Agenda on the Safety of Journalists. Call for new academic research initiatives

Jackie Harrison

Setting a New Research Agenda. The establishment of a journalism safety research network

Magda Abu-Fadil

Journalism Schools Must Include Safety Courses in Curricula

  1. How to Measure Safety of Journalists

Katharine Sarikakis

Assaults against Journalists. We see the tip of the iceberg

Sara Torsner

Measuring Journalism Safety. Methodological challenges


Ari Heinonen

Introduction. Explorations in an Emerging Research Field

  1. Threats and Violence against Journalists, and Its Effects

Syed Irfan Ashraf , Lisa Brooten

Tribal Journalists under Fire. Threats, impunity and decision making in reporting on conflict in Pakistan

Umaru A. Pate , Hamza Idris

How Journalists Survived to Report. Professionalism and risk management in the reporting of terror groups and violent extremism in North East Nigeria

Lilian Ngusuur Unaegbu

Safety Concerns in the Nigerian Media. What gender dynamics?

Anthony Feinstein , Bennis Pavisian

The Psychological Wellbeing of Iranian Journalists

Roy Krøvel

Violence against Indigenous Journalists in Colombia and Latin America

Kirsten Sparre

The Dangers of Sports Journalism


Marilyn Clark , Anna Grech

Unwarranted Interference, Fear and Self-censorship among Journalists in Council of Europe Member States

Sriram Arulchelvan

Internal Threats and Safety of Journalists. A study from India

Fay Anderson

Australian News Photographers, Safety and Trauma

Trond Idås , Klas Backholm

Risk and Resilience among Journalists Covering Potentially Traumatic Events

  1. Protection of Journalists and Sources

Stig A. Nohrstedt , Rune Ottosen

What’s Wrong with War Journalism? Why and how legal aspects of conflicts need better reporting

Leire Iturregui Mardaras , María José Cantalapiedra González , Leire Moure Peñín

Embedded Journalism and Its Implications in the Field.

Mariateresa Garrido Villareal

The Protection of Citizen Journalists during Armed Conflicts. A legal approach

Bora Ataman and Barış Çoban

How Safe Is It? Being an activist citizen journalist in Turkey

Judith Lohner , Sandra Banjac

A Story Bigger than Your Life? The safety challenges of journalists reporting on democratization conflicts

Sallie Hughes , Mireya Márquez-Ramírez

How Unsafe Contexts and Overlapping Risks Influence Journalism Practice. Evidence from a survey of Mexican journalists


Giovanna Dell’Orto

Foreign Correspondents and Local Journalists. A key newsgathering partnership, for safety and for the global public good

Sadia Jamil

Freedom under Pressure. Threats to journalists’ safety in Pakistan

Olunifesi Adekunle Suraj , Olawale Olaleye

Digital Safety among Nigerian Journalists. Knowledge, attitudes and practice

The Authors

Time to Break the Cycle of Violence against Journalists. Highlights from the UNESCO Director-General’s 2016 Report on the Safety of Journalists and the Danger of Impunity. UNESCO, Paris, 2016


  1. UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity
  2. UNESCO: Towards a Research Agenda on the Safety of Journalists